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четверг, 15 марта 2012 г.

STYLE BOOK

Продолжение дискуссии об и т.д. и пробелах между инициалами и фамилиями, см. мои посты Глупый спеллер робко мямлит... и Пробел! - Есть пробел!

В английском тоже всё не менее строго, и есть правила и справочники по 1000 страниц для тех, кто хочет писать правильно.

Миш, неправда ваша! Вот эти справочники по 100 страниц, они в каждой газете свои, см. мой пост "Стайлгайды, стайлбуки".

Если газета печатает с прописной буквы даже те слова, которые допустимо писать со строчной, говорят, что она применяет "верхний" стиль, если она избегает необязательных заглавных букв - "нижний". В каждой газете - свои правила. Сведенные вместе, они обычно печатаются в виде "справочника по стилю" style book. Стайлбук, приведенный в приложении к этой книге - компиляция справочников многих солидных газет, он отражает некий усредненный стиль.

Например, в разделе "Пунктуация":

Always use a period between dollars and cents and after per cent., but never after c, s, and d, when they represent cents, shillings, and pence: $1.23, 10 per cent., 2s 6d. Punctuate the votes in balloting thus: Yeas, 2; nays, 3.

Use no commas in such expressions as 6 feet 3 inches tall, 3 years 6 months old, 2 yards 4 inches long. Punctuate scores as follows : Wisconsin 8, Chicago 0. Punctuate times in races, etc. : 100-yard dash - Smith, first; Jones, second.

Газета пишет это в своем стайлгайде не потому, что ее репортеры и корреспонденты - дебилы и не знают общепринятых правил пунктуации или графического оформления текста, а именно потому, что ОБЩЕПРИНЯТЫХ правил на эту тему нет, можно и так, и так, а другая газета устанавливает для своих журналистов другие требования! Просто, чтобы отличиться, выделиться, быть узнаваемой. Это как кепка Лужкова - его логотип! Вряд ли сейчас в Австрии он ее часто надевает...

Итак, вот вам "учебный" (скомпилированный из нескольких наиболее типичных требований разных изданий) стайлбук из книги Гранта Милнора Хайда "Самоучитель газетного репортера и корреспондента", 1912 г.

STYLE BOOK

Being a copy of the Style Book compiled for the Course in Journalism of the University of Wisconsin from the style books of many newspapers.

1. Capitalize: All proper nouns: Smith, Madison, Wisconsin. Months and days of the week, but not the seasons of the year: April, Monday; but autumn. The first word of every quotation, enumerated list, etc., following a colon. The principal words in the titles of books, plays, lectures, pictures, toasts, etc., including the initial "a" or "the": "The Merchant of Venice," "Fratres in Urbe." If a preposition is attached to or compounded with the verb capitalize the preposition also : "Voting For the Right Man." The names of national political bodies : House, Senate, Congress, the Fifty-first Congress. The names of national officers, national departments, etc. : President, Vice President, Navy Department, Department of Justice (but not bureau of labor), White House, Supreme Court (and all courts), the Union, Stars and Stripes, Old Glory, Union Jack, United States army, Declaration of Independence, the (U. S.) Constitution, United Kingdom, Dominion of Canada. All titles preceding a proper noun : President Taft, Governor-elect Wilson, ex-President Roosevelt, Policeman O'Connor. The entire names of associations, societies, leagues, clubs, companies, roads,, lines, and incorporated bodies generally: Mason, Odd Fellow, Knights Templar, Grand Lodge of Knights of Pythias, Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Wisconsin University, First National Bank, Schlitz Brewing Company (but the Schlitz brewery), Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company, the Association of Passenger and Ticket Agents of the Northwest, Clover Leaf Line, Rock Island Road, Chicago Board of Trade, New York Stock Exchange (but the board of trade and the stock exchange). The names of all religious denominations, etc. : Catholic, Protestant, Mormon, Spiritualist, Christian Science, First Methodist Church (but a Methodist church), the Bible, the Koran, Christian, Vatican, Quirinal, Satan, the pronouns of the Deity. The names of all political parties (both domestic and foreign) : Republican, Socialism, Socialist, Democracy, Populist, Free Silverite, Labor party, (but anarchist). . Sections of the country : the North, the East, South America; southern Europe. Nicknames of states and cities : The Buckeye State, the Hub, the Windy City. The names of sections of a city and branches of a river, etc. : the East Side, the North Branch. The names of stocks in the money market: Superior Copper, Fourth Avenue Elevated. The names of French streets and places : Rue de la Paix, Place de la Concorde. Names of automobiles: Peerless, the White Steamer, Pierce Arrow. Names of holidays: Fourth of July, Christmas, New Year's day, Thanksgiving day. Names of military organizations : First Wisconsin Volunteers, Twenty-third Wisconsin Regiment, Second Army Corps, second division Sixth Army Corps, National Guard, Ohio State Militia, First Regiment armory, the militia, Grand Army of the Republic. The names of all races and nationalities (except negro) : American, French, Spanish, Chinaman. The nicknames of baseball clubs : the White Sox, the Cubs. Miscellaneous : la France, Irish potatoes, Enfield rifle, American Beauty roses.

2. Capitalize when following a proper noun: Bay, block, building, canal, cape, cemetery, church, city, college, county, court (judicial), creek, dam, empire, falls, gulf, hall, high school, hospital, hotel, house, island, isthmus, kindergarten, lake, mountain, ocean, orchestra, park, pass, peak, peninsula, point, range, republic, river, square, school, state, strait, shoal, sea, slip, theatre, university, valley, etc. : South Hall, Park Hotel, Hayes Block, Singer Building, Dewey School, South Division High" School, Superior Court, New York Theatre, Beloit College, Wisconsin University, Capitol Square.

3. Do not capitalize when following a proper name : Addition, avenue, boulevard, court (a short street), depot, "elevator, mine, place, station, stockyards, street, subdivision, ward, etc. : Northwestern depot, Pinckney street station, Third ward, Harmony court, Amsterdam avenue, Broad street, Wingra addition, Washington boulevard, Winchester place.

4. Capitalize when preceding a proper noun: All titles denoting rank, occupation, relation, etc. (do not capitalize them when they follow the noun) : alderman, ambassador, archbishop, bishop, brother, captain, cardinal, conductor, congressman, consul, commissioner, councilman, count, countess, czar, doctor, duke, duchess, earl, emperor, empress, engineer, father, fireman, governor, her majesty, his honor, his royal highness, judge, mayor, motorman, minister, officer, patrolman, policeman, pope, prince, princess, professor, queen, representative, right reverend, senator, sheriff, state's attorney, sultan: Alderman John Smith (but John Smith, alderman), Senator La Follette (but Mr. La Follette, senator from Wisconsin). The same rule applies when the following words precede a proper noun as part of a name : bay, cape, city, college, county, empire, falls, gulf, island, point, sea, state, university, etc. : City of New York, Gulf of Mexico, University of Wisconsin, College of the City of New York, College of Physicians and Surgeons.

5. Do not capitalize: The names of state bodies, etc. : the 1 senate, house, congress, speaker, capitol, executive mansion, revised statutes. (These are capitalized only when they refer to the national government : e. g., the capitol at Madison, the Capitol at Washington.) The names of city boards, departments, buildings, etc. : boards, bureaus, commissions, committees, titles of ordinance, acts, bills, postoffice, courthouse (unless preceded by proper noun), city hall, almshouse, poorhouse, house of correction, county hospital, the council, city council, district, precinct : e. g., the fire department, the tax committee. Certain other governmental terms : federal, national, and state government, armory, navy, army, signal service, custom-house. Points of the compass: east, west, north, south, northeast, etc. The names of foreign bodies : mansion-house, parliament, reichstag, landtag, duma. Common religious terms : the word of God, holy writ, scriptures, the gospel, heaven, sacred writings, heathen, Christendom, christianize, papacy, papal see, atheist, high church, church and state, etc. The court, witness, speaker of the chair, in dialogues. Scientific names of plants, animals, and birds: formica rufa. a. m., p. m., and m. (meaning a thousand) ; "ex-" preceding a title. The names of college classes : freshman, sophomore. College degrees when spelled out : bachelor of arts ; but B. A. Seasons of the year : spring, autumn, etc. Officers in local organizations (election of officers) ; president, secretary, etc. Certain common nouns formed from proper nouns: street arab, prussic acid, prussian blue, paris green, china cup, india rubber, cashmere shawl, half russia, morocco leather, epsom salts, japanned ware, plaster of paris, brussels and wilton carpets, valenciennes and chantilly lace, vandyke collar, valentine, philippic, socratic, herculean, guillotine, derby hat, gatling gun.

6. Punctuation: Omit periods after nicknames : Tom, Sam, etc. Always use a period between dollars and cents and after per cent., but never after c, s, and d, when they represent cents, shillings, and pence: $1.23, 10 per cent., 2s 6d. Punctuate the votes in balloting thus: Yeas, 2; nays, 3. Punctuate lists of names with the cities or states to which the individuals belong thus: Messrs. Smith of Illinois, Samson of West Virginia, etc. If the list contains more than three names, omit the "of" and punctuate thus: Smith, Illinois; Samson, West Virginia; etc. Where a number of names occurs with the office which they hold, use commas and semicolons, thus : J. S. Hall, governor; Henry Overstoltz, mayor; etc. Never use a colon after viz., to wit, namely, e. g., etc., except when they end a paragraph. Use a colon, dash, or semicolon before them and commas after them, thus: This is the man; to wit, the victim. "Such as" should follow a comma and have no point after it: "He saw many things, such as men, horses, etc." Set lists of names thus without points: Mesdames George V. King Charles C. Knapp Henry A. Lloyd John H. Cole Jr. Do not use a comma between a man's name and the title "Jr." or "Sr." as John Jones Jr. Use the apostrophe to mark elision : I've, 'tis, don't, can't, won't, canst, couldst, dreamt, don'ts, won'ts, '8os. Use the apostrophe in possessives and use it in the proper place : the boy's clothes, boys' clothes, Burns' poems, Fox's Martyrs, Agassiz's works, ours, yours, theirs, hers, its (but "it's" for it is). George and John's father was a good man ; Jack's and Samuel's fathers were not. Do not use the apostrophe when making a plural of figures, etc. : all the 33, the Three Rs. Do not use the apostrophe in Frisco, phone, varsity, bus. Use an em dash after a man's name when placed at the beginning in reports of interviews, speeches, dialogues, etc. : John Jones I have nothing to say. (No quotation marks.) In a sentence containing words inclosed in parentheses, punctuate as if the part in parentheses were omitted : if there is any point put it after the last parenthesis. Use brackets to set off any expression or remark thrown into a speech or quotation and not originally in it : "The Republican party is again in power [cheers] and is come to stay." Use the .conjunction "and" and a comma before the last name in a list of names, etc. : John, George, James, and Henry. Use no commas in such expressions as 6 feet 3 inches tall, 3 years 6 months old, 2 yards 4 inches long. Punctuate scores as follows : Wisconsin 8, Chicago o. Punctuate times in races, etc. : loo-yard dash Smith, first; Jones, second. Time, 0:10 1-5. Peters carried the ball thirty yards to the lo-yard line. ,

7. Date lines: Punctuate date lines as follows: MADISON, Wis., Jan. 25.- Do not use the name of the state after the names of the larger cities of the country, such as New York, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, San Francisco, Seattle. Abbreviate the names of months which have more than five letters.

8. Quoting: Quote all extracts and quotations set in the same type and style as the context, but do not quote extracts set in smaller type than the context or set solid in separate paragraphs in leaded matter. Quote all dialogues and interviews, unless preceded by the name of the speaker or by "Question" and "Answer" : "I have nothing to say," answered Mr. Smith. William Smith I have nothing to say. Question Were you there? Answer I was. Quote the names of novels, dramas, paintings, statuary, operas, and songs: "The Brass Bowl," "II Trovatore." Quote the subjects of addresses, lectures, sermons, toasts, mottoes, articles in newspapers: "The Great Northwest," "Our Interests." Be sure to include "The" in the quotation of names of books, pictures, plays, etc. : "The Fire King" ; not the "Fire King"; unless the article is not a part of the name. Do not quote the names of theatrical companies, as Her Atonement Company. Do not quote the names of characters in plays, as Shylock in "The Merchant of Venice." Do not quote the names of newspapers. In editorials put "The Star" in italics, but in "The Kansas City Star" put "Star" in italics and use no quotation marks. Do not quote the names of vessels, fire engines, balloons, horses, cattle, dogs, sleeping cars.

9. Compounds and Divisions: Omit the hyphen when using an adverb compounded with -ly before a participle : a newly built house. Use a hyphen after prefixes ending in a vowel (except bi and tri) when using them before a vowel : co-exist. When using such a prefix before a consonant do not use the hyphen except to distinguish the word from a word of the same letters but of different meaning : correspondent, but co-respondent (one called to answer a summons) ; recreation, but re-create (to create anew) reform, but re-form (to form again); re-enforced; biennial, etc. Do not use the hyphen in the names of rooms when the prefix is of only one syllable : bedroom, courtroom, bathroom, etc. (except blue room, green room, etc.). When the prefix is of more than one syllable use the hyphen. Follow the same rule in making compounds of house, shop, yard, maker, holder, keeper, builder, worker: shipbuilder, doorkeeper. In dividing at the end of a line : Do not run over a syllable of two letters. Do not divide N. Y., M. P., LL. D., M. D., a. m., p. m., etc. Do not divide figures thus : i ,-000,000 ; but thus i,ooo,-ooo. Do not divide a word of five letters or less.

10. Figures: Use figures for numbers of a hundred or over, except when merely a large or indefinite number is intended : twenty-three, 123, about a thousand, a dollar, a million, millions, a thousand to one, from four to five hundred. Use figures for numbers of less than 100 when they are used in connection with larger numbers : There were 33 boys and 156 girls; there were 1 06 last week and 16 this week. Use figures for hours of the day: at 7 p. m. ; at 8 :3

11. Abbreviations: Abbreviate the following titles and no others, when they precede a name: Rev., Dr., Mme., Mile., Mr., Mrs., Mgr. (Monsignore), M. (Monsieur). Do not put Mr. before a name when the Christian name is given except in society news and editorials : Mr. Johnson ; but Samuel L. Johnson. Supply Mr. in all cases when Rev. is used without the Christian name : Rev. Henry W. Beecher ; but Rev. Mr. Beecher. Never use "Honorable" or the abbreviation thereof except with foreign names, in editorials, or in documents. Abbreviate thus: Wash., Mont., S. D., N. D., Wyo., Cal, Wis., Colo., Ind., Id., Kan., Ariz., Okla., Me. Do not abbreviate Oregon, Iowa, Ohio, Utah, Alaska, or Texas. Abbreviate thus : Madison, Dane County, Wis. : but Dane County, Wisconsin. Use the abbreviations U. S. N. and U. S. A. after a proper name. Y. M. C. A., W. C. T. U., M. E. are good abbreviations. Abbreviate names of months when preceding date only when the month contains more than five letters : Jan. 20 ; but April 20. When the date precedes the month in reading matter spell it out: the 1 3th of January; the 26th inst. Abbreviate "Number" before figures: No. 10. Abbreviate contract, article, section, question, answer, after the first in bills, by-laws, testimony, etc.: Section i., Sec. 2.; Question , Answer , Q. A.-. Do not abbreviate railway, company, the names of streets, wards, avenues, districts, etc. : Madison Street Railway Company; State street, Monona avenue. Street and avenue are sometimes abbreviated in want-ads : State-st, Monona-av. Spell out numbered streets and avenues up to looth: Thirty-fourth street, I34th street. Use & in names of firms, but use the long "and" in names of railroads. Use Etc. and not &c. ; use Brothers and not Bros, (except in ads) ; use & only when necessary to abbreviate in stocks. Do not abbreviate the names of political parties except in election returns, then: Dem., Rep., Soc., Lab., Ind., Pro., Un. Cit. Put in necessary commas in abbreviating railroad names: C, M. & St. P. Ry. (Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway) ; C., C., C. & St. L. R. R. (Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad). Abbreviate without periods in market review and quotations : 25c, bu, brls, tcs, pkgs, f o b, p t, etc. Spell out centimes except when given thus: I Of 2OC. Do not abbreviate Fort and Mount: Fort Wayne, Mount Vernon.

12. Preparation of Copy: Use a typewriter or write legibly; some one must read your copy. If you write with a typewriter, double or triple space your copy; never use single space. Don't write on more than one side of the paper. Leave sufficient margin for corrections and leave a space at the top of the first page for headlines; leave an inch at the top of each page. Don't put more than one story on a single sheet of paper. Don't trust the copy-reader to fill in blanks or to correct misspelled names. If you write by hand print out proper names .as legibly as possible ; underscore u and overscore n. Don't assume that the copy-reader, the proofreader, or the editor will punctuate for you, or eliminate all superfluous punctuation. Remember that uniformity is more to be desired than a strict following of style. . Don't turn in copy without re-reading carefully and verifying all names and addresses. Use short paragraphs ; always paragraph the lead separately; indent paragraphs distinctly. Don't write over figures or words; scratch out and rewrite. Number your pages; when pages are inserted use letters : pages 2, 3a, 3b, 4, 5. A circle around an abbreviation or a figure indicates that the word or number is to be spelled out. A circle around a spelled-out word or number indicates that it is to be abbreviated or run in figures. Mark the end of your story, thus : # # #

13. Don'ts: Don't use "Honorable" or abbreviations thereof, except in extracts from speeches or documents, in editorials, or before foreign names. Don't add final s to afterward, toward, upward, downward, backward, earthward, etc. Don't use "signed" before the signature of a letter or document; run signature in caps. Don't begin a sentence or paragraph with figures; insert a word before the figures or spell out. Don't use commas in dates or in figures which denote the number of a thing, as A. D. 1908, 2324 State street, Policy 33815 ; in other cases use the comma, as $5,289; 1,236,400 people. Don't forget that the following are singular and require singular verbs : sums of money, as $23 was invested; United States; anybody, everybody, somebody, neither, either, none; whereabouts, as "His whereabouts is known." Don't forget that things OCCUR by chance or accident, and that things TAKE PLACE by arrangement. Don't "sustain" broken legs and other injuries. Don't "administer" punishment. Don't confound "audiences," "spectators," and casual "witnesses." Don't say "party" for "person." Don't use "suicide," "loan," "scare," as verbs. Don't use "gotten"; it is questionable; use "got." Don't use "burglarize." Don't use "transpire" for "occur." Don't use "locate" for "find"; to locate a thing is to place it. Don't use "stopped" for "stayed": He stayed at the Central Hotel. Don't "tender" receptions nor "render" songs; use simply "give" and "sing." Don't "put in an appearance" ; just appear. Don't use "don't" for "doesn't." Don't use "stated" for "said." Don't say "per day" or "per year," but "a day," "a year"; per is a Latin word and can be used only before a Latin noun, as "per diem" or "per annum." Don't say "the meeting convened"; members might convene but a single body cannot. Don't "claim that" anything is so ; you can "claim" a thing, however. 20 Don't say "Mrs. Dr. Smith," just "Mrs. Smith." Don't say "between" when more than two are mentioned. Don't use "proven" for "proved." Don't confound "staid" with "stayed." Don't say "different than," but "different from." Don't split infinitives or other verbs. Don't use "onto." Don't use "babe" or "tot" for "baby" or "child." Don't use superlatives when you can help it. Don't use trite expressions or foreign words and phrases. Don't use "corner of" in designating street location. Don't say "died from operation," but "died after operation" to avoid danger of libel. Don't get the very habit. Don't use "couple of" instead of "two." Don't use Mr. before a man's full name. Don't use slang unless it is fitting which is seldom. Don't mention the reporters, singly or collectively, unless it is necessary. It rarely is. Don't qualify the word "unique"; a thing may be "unique," but it cannot be "very unique," "quite unique," "rather unique," or "more unique." Don't use the inverted passive: e. g., "A man was given a dinner," "Smith was awarded a medal." Don't concoct long and improper titles: Justice of the Supreme Court Smith, Superintendent of the Insurance Department Jones, Groceryman Brown. If the title is long put it after the man's name; thus: George Smith, justice of the Supreme Court. Don't use the verb "occur" with weddings, receptions, etc.; they take place by design and never unexpectedly. Don't say "a number of," if you can help it. Be specific. Don't use the word "lady" for "woman," or "gentleman" for "man." Don't say "a man by the name of Smith," but "a man named Smith." Don't use "depot" for "station" railway passenger station.

1 комментарий :

Mykhailo Voloshko комментирует...

Мы же для газет не переводим, правда?

Поговорим о документации, которую переводим чаще. Есть правила её оформления.

Что лучше: писать по одному действующему правилу (пробел после каждого инициала) или запутаться, посмотрев на разнообразие неправильных вариантов, и продолжать плодить ошибки?

Да, заказчик нередко не знает сам, как правильно. Но раз переводчик задумался, как же ж оно пишется, то значит хочет написать правильно?

Так что ему лучше: одно правило или гадание на кофейной гуще?

Если не задумался, то будет плодить ошибки в документации.

Но давайте больше не будем сравнивать плохой, но хорошо оформленный перевод и хороший, но плохо оформленный. Это неправильно. :)